Tuesday, February 23, 2016

Light Emission: Strength by Numbers

In spite of its heuristic value, however, the hypothesis of light quanta, which is quite irreconcilable with so-called interference phenomena, is not able to throw light on the nature of radiation. I need only recall that these interference phenomena constitute our only means of investigating the properties of radiation and therefore of assigning any closer meaning to the frequency which in Einstein’s theory fixes the magnitude of the light-quantum. (Niehls Bohr, 1922 Nobel Speech) 
One possibility in this direction is to regard, classically, an electron as the end of a single Faraday line of force. The electric field in this picture from discrete Faraday lines of force, which are to be treated as physical things, like strings. One has then to develop a dynamics for such a string like structure, and quantize it.... In such a theory a bare electron would be inconceivable, since one cannot imagine the end of a piece of string without having the string. ---Paul Dirac, Bombay Lectures (1955)  the electron and proton are not really independent, but just two manifestations of one elementary particle. ---Paul Dirac, (1930) 
The electron is a theory we use; it is so useful in understanding the way nature works that we can almost call it real. --- Richard Feynman, From Surely You're Joking Mr. Feynman, p. 70 
Everything is still vague and unclear to me, but it seems as if the electrons will no more move on orbits ---Heisenberg in a letter to Pauli after conceiving Matrix Mechanics, June 9th 1925

I enjoy to think about the atom, how it is constituted and how it works. So I offer a little brainstorm. I've said in the past that light (like gravity) generates strength by numbers and I want to try and divulge what I mean by this. Please note this is a very simple and idealized explanation. Honest to goodness this is just a conceptual baby step. But I think this could be a key concept that could be developed and utilized universally from emission spectra and across the electromagnetic spectrum; radio to gamma.

I invite you to use your imagination when reading this . . .

Star Model

Call the atomic model I will be using Star Model. This model is more physical and less mathematical. It is a modification of Gaede's atomic model. I give a basic introduction to it here:

What Does a Hydrogen Atom Look Like?

The root assumption of Star Model is that the hydrogen atom is constituted by a set of fundamental objects that mediate light and gravity between all H atoms (or protons & neutrons). These fundamental objects converge from all other H atoms to the Universe so as to impart form to the H atom. Call these EM Ropes. In Star Model they are unique double threads with 0 wave amplitude (amplitude taken in a classic wave mechanics sense).

Torsion and Revolution

Lets just say that there are 10^100 H atoms (or protons and neutrons) of the Universe so there are 10^100 (-1) converging EM Ropes from which the H atom derives it's form. One set of threads straightens and converges at a tiny center point less than a femtometere in height and width to form the proton. Call these proton threads. Projecting out from the proton, orthogonal in a divergence is a set of electron threads. The electron threads are not a single thread but a double thread also set at 0 amplitude. Perhaps they are reverse twisted out from the proton by the converging action of the EM Ropes or by the proton. And we will just say that there are about half the number of electron threads as there are EM Ropes, so 10^50. For a 'normal' H atom the electron threads are picometers in length as opposed to the EM Ropes which tend to be inordinately long, since they interconnect all H atoms of the Universe.

The form and behavior of the electron threads and the EM Ropes is similar. They both torque along, signalling. If we stopped them we could almost think of the section between each signal as a link or link length hence when frequency increases, linklength decreases and vice versa. More importantly they have this majestic quantum quality not found in the macro world, in fact this quality underpins all macro-relations we conceive. Call this quality superposition (not to be confused with how this word is used in mathematical circles). These EM Ropes and electron threads can superpose (that is occupy the same location) up to a critical abundance or maximum number that could be two times the number of H atoms in the Universe or more. So the converging EM Ropes superpose with the diverging electron threads at the H atom within the atomic radius. However one difference between an EM Rope and an electron thread is that an electron thread not only torques along but can also possibly revolve around the proton like a hand on a clock whereas an EM Rope is rooted at two ends by the proton. So if left alone electron threads of the H atom have two simultaneous motions

1. torsion signalling or torsion wave along (like a twisting rope)
2. revolution around the proton (like a hand on a clock)

Both of these actions could be kept track of using the concept of frequency. A single electron thread could be torquing at X Hz, and revolving the proton (360 degrees) at Y Hz. (Hz is event repeated per second)

Lets focus on motion # 2 for a moment. Since the electron threads ultimately derive their form from the EM Ropes which at least in our location, converge from all directions to an intersection point that is proton, the electron threads could possibly revolve [like a clock-hand ticking] around the proton in every imaginable plane or cross section, to keep them consistent motion with their specific mother EM Rope (from which they protrude in an orthogonally). So its like we take 10^50 hands on a clock revolving in every imaginable direction around the proton, but these double stranded hands are also in a double helical torque mode.

Because of electron degeneracy (only so many electron threads and EM Ropes can interface at a time), this revolving motion could be more complex, perhaps restricted in time lapses with increasing atomic number. In other words, it may take longer or more work to get the electron threads of a heavy metal revolving, for example in a qualified metal conductor we might need to use a magnet and rotate it next to the lattice the free electron threads (not occupied in bonding) to rotate a little in one direction but perhaps not revolve. But here we are thinking of a simple Hydrogen atom. So to revolve the electron threads perhaps we would need incident ultraviolet light at 13.7 electron volts.

Strength by Numbers

The main question I wanted to probe here is how can we possibly explain emission. Take red light for example. Red light is 4 x 10 ^ 14 Hz. How could the mediators of light possibly torsion wave @ 4 x 10 ^ 14 Hz??? I think the basic answer is in strength by numbers, specifically the number of diverging electron threads coming together to interface with a set of converging EM Ropes in a sort of critical anomaly where one can influence the other.

Lets just say that we have a set of EM Ropes converging from all the atoms of the Andromeda galaxy to help form an H atom in our solar system. There is an astronomical number of H atoms in Andromeda, maybe 10^70, so there as many EM Ropes converging at a single location to form every single H atom. These EM Ropes probably won't shift a whole lot. And lets just say that we have incident light to move the electron threads and that 4 x 10 ^ 14 electron threads come together from all different planes to align themselves with these same EM Ropes. At this moment, these electron threads are literally pointing rectilinearly at all the atoms of the Andromeda galaxy. Each electron thread is torquing at 1 Hz. As they all come into alignment each electron thread torques each of the superposing EM Ropes once. We can think of this dynamic relation where the electron threads act on the EM Ropes as charge, or electron, or wavefunction or quantum state vector or matrix or critical ethereal thread anomaly. It doesn't matter what one calls it, what matters is a basic explanation. Add up the torques consummated by our electron threads on our EM Ropes ending on Andromeda in a second and we have 4 x 10 ^ 14 torque events at a single location. And I think we could easily change the parameters so that we have only half the electron threads aligning and torquing the same number EM Ropes at 2 Hz and get the same results which is interesting.

Now since in a simple H atom left to itself the electron threads will continue to revolve around the proton like clockwork, we see that as the electron threads tick on there is transition. All of a sudden these same EM Ropes could drastically decrease in frequency of torquing. So its like they turn off for a split moment, only to turn on once again as another cascade of electron threads align over them and torque them again in accord with whatever incident light is happening on our atom. Now we can't discern this with our eyes, since these events happen so quickly, but others have discerned this in ideal quantum jump experiments done in the eighties using a microscope.

There are endless possible frequencies and patterns one could conceive. And each atom has its own pattern that matches with their emission spectrum in certain circumstances. Now when atoms come together in nuclear or chemical bonds, react in a bath of high frequency incident light from an external source or relate in electricity, the electron threads could come together to produce all sorts of frequencies on the EM Ropes. One can think that as two H atoms are being crushed together in a fusion all of a sudden there are twice the potential number of electron threads that could be interfacing with each other and the EM Ropes to enact more events per second until the electron threads stably organize themselves into Helium electronic configuration which is more complex.

In conclusion, atomic electron transition is a game of numbers.

What Does a Hydrogen Atom Look Like?

If we could stop a hydrogen atom from moving and see it, I think it would look something like this mineral:

a radiating mass of slender crystals serve as a likeness to my supposed 
electron threads originating in the proton

From a tiny critically abundant and central convergence point called proton countless subatomic objects, call them electron threads in a sort of double helical mode, emanate and diverge.

But this is only half of the picture. In the background and superposed or interfacing this H atom we would have gazillions of subatomic objects converging from all atoms of the Universe to impart form to our Hydrogen atom. Call these EM Ropes (picture two below). These EM Ropes mediate light and gravity between all atoms. A set number of these EM Ropes are fundamental to each and every H atom, so that the H atom constantly assumes it's form from them:

For each Hydrogen atom there is a set # of EM Ropes converging to form the proton (the # of H atoms ((or protons and neutrons)) of the Universe minus 1), and set # of electron threads emanating and diverging from the proton. These objects have unique qualities, one of which is that they are able to occupy the same location (called superposition, interfacing, etc.). From here each location surrounding the proton has a whole number of EM Ropes and electron threads superposing at any given time.

In other words we have integers of threads in superposing alignment. Integer multiples are essential to quantum mechanics. Once we set the H atom in motion there are infinite possibilities of how the EM Ropes and electron threads can align to consummate light events, especially if we have atomic collisions. The electron threads have more freedom to move around the proton since they are not connected at two ends. So in addition to turning CW or CCW along their lengths, they can revolve around the proton like hands on a clock. In opposition the EM Ropes are always rooted in at least two protons (or neutrons), so they will shift a little less dramatically as the atom moves. These subatomic objects act like fingers tapping into and torquing one another CW or CCW.

I think the best way to think of electron is not an object, but as dynamic concept of the threads converging to form the proton and the threads diverging from the proton threads . . . influencing one another. Perhaps there is a critical # of EM Ropes and electron threads which must align in order for them to influence one another and so trigger a light events, i.e. two stranded threads in a torsion wave. When the atom gets disturbed by high frequencies or collisions perhaps electron threads may bunch up and outnumber the EM Ropes or vice versa at any given location or quadrant around the proton. Electron happens at any possible locations around the proton. In addition we would have extraneous EM Ropes interconnecting other atoms crossing through our H atom, and even extraneous electron threads from other atoms when they get close to our H atom.

The atom is a double star like pattern or texture of DNA like threads, converging to proton and diverging from proton. And light (or radiation) ultimately generates strength, that is higher and higher frequency, by numbers, numbers of electron threads and EM Ropes aligning around the proton.

How the proton stays held together in a consistent form as it constantly reforms itself by the EM Ropes while it takes on two or more locations is to me inexplicable. How the proton even forms the electron threads is also a bit of a mystery to me. What can I say?

One the one hand the interior of a proton is a dynamic place, with things [threads] moving around. On the other hand all protons of everywhere and everywhen behave exactly the same way. (Wilczek, The Lightness of Being, p. 44, brackets mine)

I dont know. But if someone asked me to model and explain the Hydrogen atom, the above is more or less what I would present to them. Call this model Hairy Head, or Star Model. It is a modification of Bill Gaede's Hydrogen atom which I think is great just don't like the jump roping magnetic threads. This is not perfect and I might have blind spots in my thought but this is at least something.

As we get to fusion the number of these EM Ropes and electron threads increases in whole numbers. In fusion electron threads bunch together and organize into well defined groups around the nucleus. Electron threads are also responsible for chemical bonds. They interlace with electron threads of adjacent atoms in a bond. And these electron threads are also in part responsible for electricity. In a current through a lattice imagine them as acting like in a domino effect or (a cascade), from one atom to the next, shifting and superposing in the direction of the current, so that on one side of each atom in the lattice we have a dominant concentration of electron threads acting to torque the next set of electron threads & EM Ropes in line.

But to return to my point above, if we are using counting and integer representations in physics we at least consider that we are counting OBJECTS. Right?

Tuesday, February 16, 2016

Alternative Explanation of Gravitational Lensing

Above is an alternative explanation of gravitational lensing.  Instead of a star or galaxy bending an abstract concept called spacetime.  This is irrational.  Light is simply relayed at an angle by a corona of a star or halo of a galaxy via the fundamental subatomic thread like objects interconnecting all atoms.  There are such things as reflection nebula.  It could be the carbon dust, and the heavier metals such as iron and nickel present at the fringes of stars and galaxies arranged in such a manner to work a relay light of a hidden supernova, quasar or whatever giving a similar appearance.  

Why c squared in Einstein's Equation?

The c squared factor in Einstein's equation can be interpreted in a few different ways . . .

Establishing a Basis of Interpretation and Physical Context

First, one has to establish a physical context in order to understand what Einstein's equation describes and all its implications. And what better place to start than at the atom, say a simple hydrogen atom the building block of visible matter? The hydrogen atom will be our basis of interpreting Einstein's equation and we will see that Einie's equation serves as a sweeping schematic of the H atom's form which can be refined by reason and imagination.

Energy, in Einie's equation is the hydrogen atom's capacity to do work. Its a sort of raw potential equation, prior to taking motion into consideration. An H atom's potential to do work is proportional to it's mass and velocity of light squared. Mass and c2 coupled on the right side of the equation hints toward an assumption that the invisible (dark) subatomic objects that mediate light and gravity to and from all atoms of the Universe are one and the same. Furthermore, the H atom (or proton and neutron) takes on its form from these invisible subatomic objects, all of which converge from none other than all other H atoms of the Universe. And logically the next assumption is that these set of dark subatomic objects interconnect all atoms of the Universe (and/or all protons and neutrons).

One could imagine a hydrogen atom as a bundle of gazillions of these subatomic objects converging and superposing from all the atoms of the Universe and imparting form to it at a central location which is the atom. Gaede called this subatomic object the EM Rope. Imagine an inordinately long double stranded threads indissolubly connecting all atoms. It is the presence of these gazillions upon gazillions of EM Ropes converging into a central bundle we call atom (or proton/neutron) that gives the H atom its enormous potential to do work, especially in a nuclear reaction. These dark subatomic objects impart form to the Hydrogen atom, and so the atom and these subatomic objects are somewhat the same and yet there is an inequality since in order to build a Hydrogen atom we need as many as these subatomic objects coming together as there are Hydrogen atoms in the Universe.

An atom has the ability to tap into the EM Ropes, or work it and be worked by it, by various means, for example in a nuclear reaction, a chemical reaction, in atomic electron transitions, etc. In these sort of mysterious and ethereal phenomena, the atom taps into the very set of subatomic objects from which it derives its form. And all of these subatomic objects keep a single H atom in tension with all other atoms of the Universe and this is called inertial mass. Gravity/Inertia is tension of these supposed dark subatomic objects. Light (or radiation) is torsion of these same invisible subatomic objects which a. converge to impart form to the H atom, and b. interconnect all H atoms (or protons and neutrons) of the Universe.

This subatomic object has some unique properties not associated with macro-objects, but it still obey's Newton's third law, or rather we can use Newton's third law to describe this object. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The subatomic objects that interconnect all atoms, impart form to them and mediate both light and gravity obey Newton's law. So when an atom taps into these or acts, the EM Rope has an equal and opposite reaction always toward at least two atoms of the Universe. Thus the square factor. This is how light is able to retrace its path so to speak. Its almost like strumming a chord and the chord reacts in both directions where it ends on at least two atoms. The c2 concept is a to and from idea. Bidirectional.

Newton's Third Law: action, equal and opposite reaction is the easiest way to understand the c squared concept in Einstein's equation. If the atom at one location torques a set of superposing EM Ropes, it would seem that the EM Ropes would be signalling in two directions, say N & S along the double stranded threads. The threads are signalling in two directions. Some of the EM Ropes will end and transform into the atom that enacted the light event, and others will end at other atoms. The light event will react back through the atom that enacted as well as end on other atoms in opposite directions. If at different locations of the atoms the torsion events are happening at different frequencies, perhaps the highest at any given time is the set of superposing EM Ropes that will cause the recoil. Einstein said,

Outgoing radiation in the form of spherical waves does not exist [he meant does not happen]. During the elementary process of radiative loss, the molecule suffers a recoil of magnitude hv/c in a direction which is only determined by ‘chance’, according to the present state of the theory." (On Quantum Theory of Radiation)

Radiative loss, could just refer to any location of the atom that suddenly increases its frequency of light events along the superposing set of EM Ropes aligned at that location. The chance is just an illusion. I think the chance has to do with the number of EM Ropes and my supposed electron threads in an aligned superposition around the atom, and this will always increase or decrease in accord with extraneous EM Ropes and motion and realignment of electron threads. No one has the ability to count them so we use quantum jump concepts as well as the almighty random variable and statistics. But I think light, like gravity, is a strength by numbers relation.

Another way to think of it is that by assumption that all that atoms of the Universe are connected and formed by these subatomic objects . . . light behavior constantly acts through the H atom, equally, from opposite directions, and this may in someway help maintain its structural integrity. Or the H atom can signal equally in opposite directions via the mediators. This implies that light or radiation is always working to and from all atoms. Structurally, this further implies that an H atom derives its form from one and the same set of objects that mediate light between all atoms, and these same objects also maintain mass, and are also involved in what we call gravity. An atom constantly tapping into these subatomic objects keeps a constant action/reaction tension between all atoms that is basically inertial mass, and is exponentially increased in gravity when we model objects like Sun & Earth at close distances. But it would seem that all the atoms of the Universe are inseparably connected via the mediator of light and gravity. There is a perfect, profound, balanced and consistent connection and activity happening between them all. I guess we can say that God made all atoms well, perfect, symmetrical, clear, and Einstein's equation can be used to describe this.

Another way to interpret c2 is to say that the H atom has an ability to emit and absorb at a characteristic range of frequencies. In either emission or absorption the atom is simply relaying along our subatomic objects in two different directions pending emission or absorption.

Bidirectional, Diametrical, Two-Way

c2 is diametrical . . . two-way. 

The direction of light phenomenon if we can even put it that way, regardless of location, is diametrical (or bi-directional). It is "aimed" at the source atom as well as the target atom since when the EM Ropes are tapped into they signal in a polar manner. Light happens in two possible directions: to or from every atom of the Universe. There are always two or more atoms involved in light and gravity. Tapping into a single mediator (our EM Rope, or subatomic object) always influences at least two atoms. Thus the squared factor.

There is no preferred direction of light, like in silly CMBR (Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation) interpretations. Light begins and ends at at least two atoms. And the atom is constantly signalling atoms and being signaled to by atoms via the mediators of light interconnecting all of them.  In addition there is always an abundance of extraneous EM Ropes crossing through atoms.  These extraneous EM Ropes begin and end on atoms other than our test atom.  It is these that are possibly responsible for the "strain" detected by LIGO.

Einstein's equation is probably the most refined and simple equation in history. It is an all-encompassing, advanced and abstract way to describe an H atom, but it needs some fundamental assumptions and traced objects to understand. Unfortunately most people spit out nonsense about energy converting into matter or mass or gravitational waves. . . in other words: concepts converting into concepts. They haven't a clue what they are talking about. There can be no explanation without appealing to something. A theory, explanation, or manifestation is built upon objects: that which have form. These objects perform causal relations with other objects.

At Least Two Atoms . . .

When we talk of this invisible subatomic object that mediates light . . . when acted upon by the atom, two atoms will always be induced to motion. The signalling atom as well as the receiving atom. 

At least two atoms are always influenced by a light event which is a result of all sorts of atomic interactions like nuclear, chemical, random electron transitions, and so on and so forth. Of course in reality this is multiplied gazillions of times over because these mediators converge and superpose at the atom and in addition there are extraneous mediators of light which begin and end on other atoms, crisscrossing and superposing through the source atom. So if an atom consummates a light event it is possible that gazillions of pairs of atoms are influenced across the Universe. Because if you tap into that mediators it will act in a polar manner, inducing motion along it in opposite directions to where it ends on atoms which could be located at the edge of the Universe. All this is further illustrated in the inverse square law of light.

There is a rich interpretive potential in c squared concept. It also teaches us that light is impossible without two or more atoms.

Why Does a Hydrogen Atom have an Enormous Capacity to Do Work?

Many have wondered about this.

Suffice it to say that it is the presence of gazillions upon gazillions of EM Ropes converging from all the other atoms of the Universe into a central fiber bundle, a single object that we call atom (or proton/neutron) and in a single location that gives the H atom its enormous potential to do work, especially in a nuclear reaction.

In a nuclear reaction we have twice the number of these subatomic objects all vying for a single location. It seems that only so many can overlap, crisscross or superpose in a sort of critical abundance of thread. So when two H atoms are forced together to their 'convergence points' an event happens that perhaps taps into every single one of these subatomic objects wherein chemical reactions or atomic electron transitions perhaps less are tapped in an the event that is less volatile. But in a nuclear reaction we might have the action/reaction for an astronomical number of these subatomic objects in a single event.

Two atoms crushed together at a single location means two times the # of these subatomic objects in shock, all acting upon one another in a moment, and this causes a reaction along the EM Ropes which will disturb every surrounding atom since all atoms of the Universe are of course inherently constituted by these subatomic objects that also mediate light as well as gravity.

It would be well to reread famous quotes from Heisenberg and Feynman who sort of flirted with these ideas. In so many words:

"Nature uses only the longest threads to weave her patterns, so each small piece of her fabric reveals the organization of the entire tapestry." ---(Richard Feynaman, The Character of Physical Law) 
"Light and matter are both single entities, and the apparent duality arises in the limitations of our language." ---(From "Introductory" in The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory (1930) as translated by Carl Eckhart and Frank C. Hoyt, p. 10.)

Above we have some simple explanations and descriptions leaving some details out, but there is enormous potential in the H atom or a proton and/or neutron because of its fundamental and indissoluble connection to all other atoms of the Universe which each supply it with an EM Rope so that it can assume its form. If you see an H atom through all the atoms of the Universe then you see its potential.

And this is the 'miracle' of an H atom, as well as the genius hiding in Einstein's equation . Very abstract and lofty but IMPOSSIBLE to even begin to unravel without the assumption that all H atoms are somehow interconnected by an inordinately long subatomic object with unique properties and behaviors. With each successive location the atom assumes, it mysteriously reforms itself out of these subatomic objects, so that it's form remains consistent even as these subatomic objects are always shifting, adjusting, held together, and so on so that:

One the one hand the interior of a proton is a dynamic place, with things [threads] moving around. On the other hand all protons of everywhere and everywhen behave exactly the same way. (Wilczek, The Lightness of Being, p. 44, brackets mine)

Gravity: Atoms Shift their Constituent Fundamental Subatomic Objects

When an object is located at the surface of the star, gravity is strong between the two since there are many pairs of atoms effectively in tension with one another, generating pull with a net effect toward a center.  Hypothetically, one can calculate the number of fundamental subatomic objects connecting any two objects comprised of atoms (or protons and neutrons) by multiplying the number of atoms of the two.  With decreasing distance these fundamental subatomic become more and more effective in tension at steeper angles.  

If we separate these two objects at great distances, gravity is weak. Gravity effectively flattens out. The reason is when any two objects are separated by great distances the atoms of the two cannot effectively tug on one another at any steep angle via the fundamental subatomic objects which mediate gravity (and light). They fan in so to speak. Their effectiveness is by comparison that of two H atoms with one effective 'line' of tension. And this is also why distant stars appear as dots in the sky. The same fundamental subatomic object which generates gravity also works light between any two stars or any two atoms. And these all converge between any two distant stars as if a single 'line' between the two.

Gaede's Famous Illustration

The locality vs. non-locality debate is irrational. People are debating and discovering ideas that are WAY out of context.

When two stars are separated at great distances all their interconnecting mediators cannot possibly shift via their constituent atoms. Why? Simple geometry. Take two stars and separate them by a gazillion kilometers and draw straight lines between all their atoms. It doesn't matter how much their distance changes, there will only be a single 180 degree angle. But when they start getting within a few astronomical units of one another the angles will have changed as the mediators remain rectilinear. So what happens is that the atom has a way of instantaneously shifting the mediators when taking on a succession of locations. This shifting of the mediators is gravity. It presupposes that all the H atoms (or protons and neutrons) of the Universe are permanently connected by a fundamental subatomic object from which they all derive their form.  This fundamental subatomic object is like a double twined thread it is rectilinear:

As for the power by which the Sun seizes or holds the planets, and which, being corporeal, functions in the manner of hands, it is emitted in straight lines throughout the whole extent of the world, and like the species of the Sun, it turns with the body of the Sun; now, seeing that it is corporeal, it becomes weaker and attenuated at a greater distance or interval, and the ratio of its decrease in strength is the same as in the case of light, namely, the duplicate proportion, but inversely, of the distances [that is, 1/d²]. (Astronomia Philolaica, Ismael Bullialdus)

Bullialdus' "straight lines" is his way of saying there is a rectilinear mediator interconnecting all the atoms of the Sun and planets.  This is is an object, Gaede's EM Rope.  

The atomic shift of the mediators to instantaneously activate adjacent atoms and generate strength by numbers is different than light or radiation, but the same object is used in light. The atoms tap into these objects and they twirl or signal at a reaction that is the speed of light. And they do this AS the atom shifts them when two objects are at close distances.

Einstein never figured this ought. He instead caused more confusion. You see this new LIGO discovery is a ruse. They are answering questions that are OUT OF CONTEXT and patting themselves on the back for this all while spending millions of public funds.

Monday, February 8, 2016

Who Found the Inverse Square Law?

of gravity . . .

A Frenchie astronomer and mathematician named Ismael Bullialdus, lived 1605-1694.

From Astronomia Philolaica . . . 

Original: Virtus autem illa, qua Sol prehendit seu harpagat planetas, corporalis quae ipsi pro manibus est, lineis rectis in omnem mundi amplitudinem emissa quasi species solis cum illius corpore rotatur: cum ergo sit corporalis imminuitur, & extenuatur in maiori spatio & intervallo, ratio autem huius imminutionis eadem est, ac luminus, in ratione nempe dupla intervallorum, sed eversa.

Translation: As for the power by which the Sun seizes or holds the planets, and which, being corporeal, functions in the manner of hands, it is emitted in straight lines throughout the whole extent of the world, and like the species of the Sun, it turns with the body of the Sun; now, seeing that it is corporeal, it becomes weaker and attenuated at a greater distance or interval, and the ratio of its decrease in strength is the same as in the case of light, namely, the duplicate proportion, but inversely, of the distances [that is, 1/d²].